Except from pages 6 and
When they arrived at the station, Cooley escorted his suspect into
Interrogation Room Number Two. Aptly named the “sweat room,” Number Two
was a twelve-foot-square cubicle with pale green walls, fluorescent
tubes set into acoustic tile overhead, and a two-way mirror in the door
for viewing lineups. Miranda’s interview began at approximately 10:30
a.m. Without hesitating, Cooley and Young confronted Miranda with
selective facts of Patricia Doe’s rape. Miranda denied any involvement
and said he was at work the night Patricia was abducted. When they asked
him about Barbara Doe’s robbery, he denied any knowledge or
participation. Cooley then asked Miranda to stand in a lineup for the
victims of both crimes, telling him they would take him home as soon as
the victims cleared him. Cooley later freely admitted to misleading
Miranda about his knowledge of the crimes under investigation but noted
that the cordial, sympathetic approach he used in talking to Miranda
helped establish a rapport with the suspect. Besides, it was common for
officers to engage in a certain amount of deception. Good detectives,
for instance, usually implied that they knew more about a case than they
Unfortunately, although Patricia and Barbara both thought number one
(Miranda) looked like the man, they couldn’t be positive. “I was
somewhat dejected and frustrated,” Cooley recalled in his later account,
and, unsure what approach to use next, he returned to the interview room
where Miranda waited alone. Noting the gravity of the officer’s
demeanor, Miranda shifted uneasily in his chair and asked, “How did I
“Not too good, Ernie,” replied Cooley, noticing Miranda’s concern.
“They identified me then?” Miranda asked.
“Yes, Ernie, they did,” Cooley replied gravely.
“Well,” said Miranda resignedly, “I guess I’d better tell you about it
Somewhat surprised, Cooley gave Miranda a copy of the standard statement
form, having already filled in the top four lines:
SUBJECT: Rape DR
STATEMENT OF: Ernest Arthur Miranda
TAKEN BY: C. Cooley
#413-W. Young #182
DATE: 3-13-63; TIME: 1:30 p.m.
PLACE TAKEN: Interr
At the top of this standard form was a paragraph that read:
I, _______________, do hereby swear that I make this statement
voluntarily and of my own free will, with no threats, coercion, or
promises of immunity, and with full knowledge of my legal rights,
understanding any statement can be used against me. I, _____________, am
_____ years of age and have completed the ________ grade in school.
Miranda wrote his name, recorded his age as twenty-three, and the grade
completed as eighth. Then, in the provided space below, he wrote:
Seen a girl walking up street stopped a little ahead of her got out of
car walked towards her grabbed her by the arm and asked to get in car.
Got in car without force tied hands and ankles. Drove away for a few
mile. Stopped asked to take clothes off. Did not, asked me to take her
back home. I started to take clothes off her without any force and with
cooperation. Asked her to lay down and she did. Could not get penis into
vagina got about 1/2 (half) inch in. Told her to get clothes back on.
Drove her home. I couldn’t say I was sorry for what I had done but asked
her to pray for me.
When he’d finished, Miranda signed the form again at the bottom, beneath
the statement: “I have read and understand the foregoing statement and
hereby swear to its truthfulness.” Detectives Cooley and Young signed
the document as witnesses.
Miranda also confessed, although not in writing, to robbing Barbara Doe
in November 1962 and admitted attempting to rob Sylvia Doe in February
1963. Cooley, not wanting to risk jeopardizing Miranda’s successful
prosecution in the rape case by opening his written confession to attack
because of the mention of other, unrelated crimes,”
did not ask Miranda for a written confession in these other two cases.
After Miranda signed his handwritten confession, Cooley brought Patricia
Doe into Interrogation Room Number Two, and Cooley asked Miranda to
state his name. Miranda did so and, in Patricia’s presence, told Cooley
and Young that he recognized her. “She’s the one I was talking about,”
he said. Patricia later remembered that he said, “She’s the one.”
Barbara Doe was then led into the interrogation room, and in her
presence Miranda told Cooley and Young that he recognized her as well.
Both young women later testified that based on this interaction they
were “sure” he was the man who had accosted them.