Foreword By Janet Napolitano, Governor of Arizona
Table of Contents
  Miranda's Confession
  Right to Counsel
  Privilege Against Self-Incrimination
  Miranda and the Arizona Supreme Court
  Birth of the Miranda Warnings
  John Frank as Architect of the Miranda Doctrine
  John Flynn's Oral  Argument at the Supreme Court
  Gary Nelson's Oral Argument for Arizona
  Thurgood Marshall's Oral  Argument at the Supreme Court
  The Opinion
  The Miranda Warnings
  The Ongoing Debate
  The Dickerson Case
  Miranda's Global Reach

Miranda and the al Qaeda Terror

  Padilla and Hamdi
  False Confessions and the Tuscson Four
  Political Ideology and the Supreme Court
  Dickerson's Legacy
  Gideon's Legacy
  The Evolution of Miranda




by Janet Napolitano,
Governor of Arizona

The Age of Frank came to the legal world when John P. Frank insisted that the full potential of the U.S. Constitution be realized and extended to every American.

It did not extend to Ernesto Miranda in 1963, nor to millions of Americans like him.  John found this abhorrent and went to work applying the virtues of the Age of Frank to American constitutional law.  Three years later he triumphed, as the U.S. Supreme Court agreed with him by establishing Miranda Rights.

There was potential in the U.S. Constitution that the American justice system had left untapped, and John was there to fix that deficiency.  In doing so, he welcomed millions of Americans into the Age of Frank.

In the Age of Frank, strawberries were not just for eating—they were to be dipped in champagne, rolled in powdered sugar, and devoured. Secretary’s Day meant more than flowers on a desk. It meant taking everyone out for a long, leisurely lobster lunch. And opera began and ended with Wagner.

That was how the Age of Frank came to the people who knew John personally.  John Frank is gone, but his era lives in the legacy of Miranda v. Arizona.  Long live the Age of Frank.


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Miranda: The Story of America's Right to Remain Silent
Copyright © 2004, Gary L. Stuart. All rights reserved.
Available at Alibris,, Barnes and Noble, and your local bookseller
page last revised: 10/25/04